(no subject)

2007-Sep-05, Wednesday 09:46
qiihoskeh: myo: kanji (Default)
* I worked on Bicons a lot over the weekend, but there are things that need to be fixed. One thing that's unsatisfactory, but probably can't be fixed is the noun formats. Almost half the nouns will have the format CVCCe and almost another half will be CuCVC. A small number of nouns will be either CuCCV or CVCiC.

There isn't much noun inflection; just a "dual" prefix and possessor suffixes. The "dual" prefix <o-> is used on words for things that naturally come in pairs. CuCVC words become oCCVC. This "dual" form takes singular agreement when a single pair is referred to. The possessor suffixes resemble the personal suffixes used on non-finite verbs. They are:

-s, -tsu - 1st person singular
-tsa - 1st person exclusive plural
-ma - 1st person inclusive plural
-kh, -ku - 2nd person singular
-ka - 2nd person plural
-l, -lu - 3rd person singular (definite)
-la - 3rd person plural (definite)
0 - 3rd person indefinite
-r, -ru - reflexive
-do relative

The reflexive possessor refers to the 1st argument of the verb. Or to the argument with the 1st role -- I need to figure that out. The relative possessor is identical to the relative pronoun.

Example:

Djanigh tcokhle lopuzluw anil ozlafru.
"Johnny grabbed the chocolate with both hands."

where ozlafru is o-zlaf-ru, the "dual" of dzulaf "hand" with the reflexive possessor.

Edited to Add:

I'm not sure of whether derivation of nouns from roots is limited to CVRRe and RuRVC etc. or whether other derivations such as RVRCe and CuRVR are used. In the example, tcokhle is from /kl/ "dark" and dzulaf is from /zl/ "hold" (the same root is in lopuzluw).

(no subject)

2007-Aug-31, Friday 08:33
qiihoskeh: myo: kanji (Default)
* I missed my therapy session yesterday. I was running late because of my cold and the therapist couldn't stay late.

* I'm adding a consonant phoneme /y/ to Bicons; it'll dissimilate to [w] before /i/ and will be [j] otherwise. This makes 18 consonants. I may post the whole phonology at a later date.

I've also eliminated the obviative marker and the obviative pronoun forms. If the verb has two 3rd person arguments but only one phrase appears, the phrase is treated as the 2nd argument.

Djanigh l-o-kht-u-w. - "He/she heard John."
John 3/3-S.Dir-hear-Ind-S

The 1st possessive, with suffixes directly on the noun, seems to be replacing the 2nd possessive (which uses the inverse participle of /z/ "have") in most instances. However the latter will still be used when there are two types of possession semantically.

tcokhle i-dz-u-l malde-kh - "your mother's chocolate"
chocolate Inv-have-Ind-3S mother-2S

Is an example of both kinds. Although the following is more likely:

tcokhle-l malde-kh

* I haven't been getting much else done.

BiCons Verb Forms

2007-Aug-29, Wednesday 00:35
qiihoskeh: myo: kanji (Default)
Both finite and non-finite verb forms use the same aspect-marked stems (and possibly tense marker incorporation too). The mood-marking system occurs only in finite forms.
Read more... )

(no subject)

2007-Aug-28, Tuesday 01:34
qiihoskeh: myo: kanji (Default)
This is an update to the previous entry.

In derivations, the static imperfective <i> moves from infix (which becomes 0) to prefix, so the form becomes DiRRM instead of RiRM (R & R are the root consonants, M is the mood suffix, and D is the derivation consonant). There are also dynamic derivation of static verbs and dynamic derivations of dynamic verbs, both DARRM (A is the aspect vowel). While I'm thinking about it, I should list the derivations.

Static to Static:
/j/ - a state between the named quality and it's opposite
/b/ - continuation of the state
Edit: I forgot the following two derivations; they apply to qualities.
/m/ - "very"
/z/ - "slightly"

Static to Dynamic:
/p/ - transition into the state
/c/ - transition from the state
/x/ - transition through the state
/g/ - an increase in the named quality

Dynamic to Dynamic:
/n/ - habitual
/d/ - iterative
/b/ - continuation of an action (imperfective only)

BiCons TAM

2007-Aug-26, Sunday 23:01
qiihoskeh: myo: kanji (Default)
The infixed aspect vowels are:

i - static imperfective
e - dynamic prospective
a - dynamic imperfective
o - dynamic retrospective
u or 0 - dynamic perfective

In derivations, the static imperfective <i> moves from infix (which becomes 0) to prefix.

The suffixed mood vowels are:

i - subjunctive; also used for infinitives and secondary predicates
e - (not used)
a - imperative
o - contrafactual
u or 0 - indicative; also used for participles

Only one of the two possible <u>'s can become 0, since at most two consonant phonemes in succession can occur. Also, only one initial or final consonant phoneme can occur.

Note: looking at all the formats I have written out, it seems that the dynamic perfective infix is always 0. However, if there were perfective participles or perfective secondary predicates, <u> would appear.

The tense particles are:

ta - absolute present
dzo - definite past
he - definite future

Some combinations, such as past imperative, don't occur.

(no subject)

2007-Aug-24, Friday 04:08
qiihoskeh: myo: kanji (Default)
* Lately, I keep forgetting to update this journal!

* I saw my new psychiatrist Tuesday. Instead of having fewer medications as my therapist had given me to expect, I'm now being prescribed more.

* I got bored with the verbosity of the minimalistic conlang, so I started on a different one, project Bicons. It will also use a modified Kelenala word list.

Bicons uses biconsonantal roots for the verbs (nouns use three consonants). The inflectional and derivational patterns allow the same root to be used for both a dynamic verb and a probably unrelated static verb, and numerous nouns as well.

There are 17 consonant phonemes, most of which have different phones for coda and onset, and 5 vowel phonemes. The phonology is pretty simple; the syllables are CV(C). There are both phonemic (mainly for roots) and phonetic romanizations.

Dynamic verb stems inflect for aspect, mood, and tense. Aspect is indicated by an infixed vowel (possibly 0 if perfective) and mood by a suffixed vowel (possibly 0 if indicative). Tense marking uses CV suffixes which are in origin incorporated adverbs. The aspects are perfective, imperfective, retrospective, and prospective. The mood are indicative, imperative, subjunctive, and contrafactual. The tenses are definite (present, past, and future) or contextual if not marked (which they never are if the aspect is perfective). Static verbs are always imperfective (marked with a different vowel than dynamic imperfective). There are also aspectual derivations, where the aspect vowel becomes a prefix.

Verb forms are divided into finite forms, which use personal prefixes, and non-finite forms (infinitives, participles, secondary predicates, adverbs, and prepositions), which use other, or no, prefixes. The personal prefixes specify direct/inverse alignment as well as person and number of the 1st argument. There are also personal prefixes indicating that the 1st argument is 2nd person and the 2nd argument is 1st person (otherwise, any 2nd argument is 3rd person). Finite forms also have suffixes indicating whether the 2nd argument is singular, plural, reflexive, deleted, or whether the verb is an auxiliary. Non-finite forms have personal suffixes for the 2nd argument. Here, the 3rd person suffixes distinguish definite from indefinite. There are also 3rd argument suffixes, the same for both finite and non-finite forms.

Arguments of non-finite forms always follow the verb, while those of finite forms precede the verb if definite and follow the verb if indefinite.

Here's a sample word:
torabaspuhewgane, meaning
"Will we still be giving them to each other at that time?"
and broken down as:
t - 1st argument = 2nd person and 2nd argument = 1st person
o - 1st argument is singular; it also indicates direct alignment, but that's irrelevent here because
ra - is the reciprocal marker
b - continuative derivation
a - imperfective aspect
sp - "give"
u - indicative mood
he - definite future time
w - 2nd argument is singular
g - 3rd argument is definite
a - 3rd argument is plural
ne - question particle

This post is long enough, I think.

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