qiihoskeh: myo: kanji (Default)
Last Edited: 2006.Aug.18 Fri

The "conjugations" consist of a stem, a possible temporal point of reference suffix (TPR), and a possible enclitic pronoun. Rather than show a complete list, the table shows typical entries using -ra as the TPR. The stressed syllable of each word is underlined and the suffixes and enclitics are in bold.
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qiihoskeh: myo: kanji (Default)
Last Edited: 2006.Aug.18 Fri

Orthography and Some Phonology


This is somewhat different than the original Alpha phonology. The pronunciations given are approximate.

Consonants

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Vowels

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The diphthongs are ae, ao, ei, eu, oi, and ou. A doubled vowel letter indicates a long vowel. All other combinations of two vowel letters are phonologically disyllabic, even if pronounced like diphthongs.

Syllables

The types of syllables are short ((C)V) and long ((C)VV and (C)VC). The consonants b, d, g, h, t, and x are excluded from codas. However, x functions as a geminate between vowels.

Stress

If a syllable is marked with an (acute) accent, that syllable is stressed (stem type 4 or 5); else
if the penult is long, it's stressed (stem type 1); else
if the antepenult is long, it's stressed (stem type 2); else
if the antepenult is short, it's stressed (stem type 3); else
if the penult is short, it's stressed (stem type 4); else
the ultima is stressed (stem type 5) OR the word has no stress.

The stem types are relevent to the "conjugations".

Alpha1 Notes

2006-Aug-11, Friday 16:55
qiihoskeh: myo: kanji (Default)
This will be something like a trigger language, with the case/role of one of the arguments, which I'm calling a subject, indicated by a prefix on the verb. It's not clear yet under which circumstances the subject precedes the verb and under which it comes after, but when it does come after, it takes the trigger preposition. All other arguments come after the verb. Other cases/roles are indicated by prepositions; there are three for core cases and an extended set of oblique prepositions. In addition, lexical verbs can take a prefix making them act like prepositions. When used as subjects, the core cases lose their case/role prepositions, since this information is marked on the verb. The objects of prepositions aren't otherwise marked for case/role, and one argument of relational nouns and verbs may also be unmarked for its case/role when it comes first after the verb. This allows personal pronouns to be enclitic (pronouns come first after the syntactical verb).
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qiihoskeh: myo: kanji (Default)

Argument Structure

This has a table of word classes, the roles for each argument, and the expected order of the arguments. Read more... )
qiihoskeh: myo: kanji (Default)
This contains all the single syllable particles and affixes in one place. Most of it is yet to be filled in. Last edited: 2006.Jan.30 Mon
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qiihoskeh: myo: kanji (Default)
This one's pretty simple. But it's gotten a little less simple. Last edited: 2006.Jan.30 MonRead more... )
qiihoskeh: myo: kanji (Default)
Last edited: 2006.Jan.30 Mon

  • The subject's role is indicated by a suffix on the verb; the roles of the other arguments are indicated using prepositions.

  • However, if the first argument after the verb has the expected role, the preposition is omitted; pronouns become enclitics. Are there also proclitic pronouns?

  • An affix may be needed for when the expected second argument doesn't appear. This may be implied for deverbal nouns.

  • Prepositions which don't indicate basic roles move with the phrase when it moves to the subject position. There's a single "voice" suffix for all of these.

  • Agent is marked like Donor.

  • Patient and Perceiver are marked like Recipient.

  • Intransitive subject is marked like either Patient or Agent. Note that this may require an additional argument moved to the subject to manifest.

  • Object is distinct from both Patient and Agent.

  • Possessor and Location/Reference Point are distinct from Object, Patient, and Agent.

  • There's possibly a Genitive, replacing the original Donor, Recipient, or Object marking after nouns.

  • There's probably a Vocative as well.

  • Instrument may also use a basic preposition.

  • Location, Time, and Manner may be indicated by special words.


  • A subject is marked as definite by placing the clitic |ho| before the verb (but |i| is used instead if the subject is a pronoun or a proper noun). Other arguments are marked as definite by placing |o| in front of them (but after any preposition).

  • There are probably additional determiners.


  • Words for some spatial (and other) relations may normally act as prepositions, requiring affixes in order to function as verbs or nouns.

  • Some other words may normally act as adverbs and also require conversion affixes.

  • The copula is prefixed to a simple predicate noun and otherwise stands alone.

  • Possibly, the copula morpheme is used as a prefix to convert prepositions and adverbs to verbs. Conversion to nouns will also involve prefixes (or relative particle).


  • Basic adjective forms (positive and superlative) act like nouns, but derived forms (comparative, evolutive, inceptive(?), cessative(?), viative, and satisfactive) act like verbs.


  • Relative and Serial verbs are marked as such with various proclitics.

  • Serial and Complement verbs have a special marking for when no argument is coreferential. Possibly, this marking is also used to indicate that a Main verb is impersonal.

  • Complement Verbs have a special marking for when the subject is coreferential with the auxiliary's subject.


  • Basic TAM are either prefixed to the stem or precede the verb (or other word).


  • A partitive phrase is constructed by placing a quantifier in front of a definite phrase.

  • The superlative of an adjective is indicated by placing the basic form of the adjective in front of a partitive phrase.

  • There should be a preposition indicating Standard of Comparison used with comparatives.

  • There should also be a preposition indicating Degree of Comparison.




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