qiihoskeh: myo: kanji (Default)
Last Edited: 2006.Aug.04 Fri

This pertains to suffixing. There are five types of stem endings. The endings of each type are described and the modifications made when different kinds of suffixes are added are given. In practice, the type of ending must be noted for many roots and suffixes. Grade refers to the grade of the initial consonant of suffixes beginning with a single consonant.
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* Inserted -d- becomes -j- when the following original vowel is *i.
* For short vowel stems, the corresponding long vowel is given, if other than double; in most cases, this will also determine the type, but -i/ê also requires the type number.
* The type number is needed in some other cases as well.
qiihoskeh: myo: kanji (Default)
Last Edited: 2006.Aug.02 Wed

All the actants use prefixes. Some actants distinguish singular (S in tags) and plural (P) number. The tables show the prefixes and the corresponding tags. "NA" might stand for either "Noun/Adjective" or "Nullified Argument".

Monovalent Words

The grade of the initial stem consonant is (3) except with NAS.
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Divalent Words

The "proximate" or more "animate" actant is first, fused with a direct/inverse marker, followed by the "obviative" or less "animate" actant. The grade of the initial stem consonant is determined by the latter.

Obviative Prefixes

The number in parentheses indicates the grade of the initial stem consonant. A colon indicates that the preceding vowel is lengthened. The 1st person marking is used only when the proximate prefix is 2nd person exclusive.
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Proximate Prefixes

In the tags, .D is direct and .I is inverse. Inverse means that the roles of the arguments are swapped.
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Trivalent Words


Obviative Prefixes

This table show the combinations of "indirect object" + "direct object". The column labels show the tags for the "direct objects" (usually Inanimate) and the rows labels show the tags for the "indirect objects" (usually Animate). As before, forms with 1st person marking are used only when the proximate prefix is 2nd person exclusive. Note that when the "direct object" is indefinite, the forms act like divalent forms.
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These are the most likely to change.

Proximate Prefixes

These are the same as for divalent words.

Kappa Historical

2006-Jul-28, Friday 11:08
qiihoskeh: myo: kanji (Default)
Last Edited: 2006.Aug.04 Fri

Protolanguage Syllables

are CV(V)(C).
Coda consonants may be limited to *q, *n, *f, *s, *l, and *r.
Onset consonants may be limited to *p, *t, *k, *q, *b, *d, *g, *f, *s, *l, and *r.
The vowels are *i, *e, *a, and *u.
There are three syllable lengths in the protolanguage which are reduced to two; I'm not sure I'll keep the reduction as it is now. I'm also not sure if *q is [?]; it might be [h].

Historical Vowel Development

The following table show the cumulative development of 2-vowel combinations. Entries use orthographic notation. Where two values are given, the first is for short vowels and the second when long.
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Vowels are long due to compensation from loss of a following consonant.

Consonant Mutations

These are called mutational changes because although word-initial consonants aren't affected, stem-initial consonants are. There are three grades (maybe). This section is very likely to change.
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There are actually more changes going on which I've tried to group into three columns, but I'll probably have to change this. Also, I'm not sure about the specifics of the grades: whether the 3rd grade of the voiceless stops should be voiced fricatives, whether the voiced stops don't become nasals in more environments, etc.

Consonant Changes

In addition to the mutational changes, *t and *d become c and j, respectively, before *i (or y). Then, kwi and gwi become ti and di, respectively. Finally, pw and bw become kw and gw.

Sl and fl become ll, sr and fr become rr.

Kappa Orthography

2006-Jul-27, Thursday 18:30
qiihoskeh: myo: kanji (Default)
I've lost track of where I am in the Greek alphabet, so I'm arbitrarily calling this Kappa. I'll probably skip Lambda unless I do a loglan.

Orthography

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* Where two phonetic symbols are given for a consonant, the first is used after a vowel letter and the second otherwise.
* Where two phonetic symbols are given for a vowel, the first is short and the second long.
* The doubled vowel letters are used only before |l|, |r|, |j|, and |v| or when final. Vowels are always short before |d|, |g|, |h|, |w|, |x|, and |y|. Vowels are otherwise long.

The phonetic values for |ô| and long |o| are merging.

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