qiihoskeh: myo: kanji (Default)
Last Edited: 2006.Aug.04 Fri

Word Classification

Lexical nouns can function as syntactical verbs as well as syntactical nouns and lexical verbs and adjectives can function both as syntactical verbs and as syntactical adjectives. The word's valence is probably more important.

Monovalent Words

The monovalent words have a single argument, A1, specifying the word's subject. The actants for A1 are the prefixes. Monovalent words include intransitive lexical verbs, lexical adjectives, and most lexical nouns.

Divalent Words

Divalent words have an additional argument, A2, specifying either the words's object or its possessor. The actants for A1 are the suffixes. The divalent words include transitive lexical verbs and lexical nouns denoting relationships, such as kinship terms and words for body parts.

Trivalent Words

Trivalent words have a third argument, A3, specifying the direct object, with A2 now specifying the indirect object. A3 is normally inanimate and A2 here is normally animate; thus for each there are certain suffixes that rarely occur. The trivalent words include the ditransitive lexical verbs.

Argument Structure Classes

This will show which roles are matched with which arguments for each word class.
Read more... )

Actant Affixes

The following table shows the actants. Subjects are marked using prefixes and objects using suffixes. There are two subject paradigms, depending on whether the word has imperative mood or not. Entries such as m(u)- indicate that the vowel is dropped under certain phonological conditions. Note the multiple 3rd person actants. Their exact use depends on how the word functions in the sentence.
Read more... )
There may also be distinct subject paradigms for Impersonal and Modal words.

3rd Person Actants

For each 3rd person actant (i.e. 3., 3A-, 3I-, 3H-, -3D, -3A, -3I), either an argument phrase appears or the actant coreferences an argument of the matrix or the argument is nullified. Which of these occurs depends on the actant, the other actants present, and the word form's syntactical usage.

* If 3H- appears, a corresponding argument phrase must appear.
* -3D always coreferences an argument of the matrix.
* 3A- and 3I- will always act like 3. in the same situation.

Main Usage

This applies to the syntactical verb of a main clause or a relative clause. There are no forms with 3H- or -3D and argument phrases always appear.

Conjunctive Usage

This applies to the syntactical verb of complement clauses and adverbial clauses and after conjunctive particles.

* 3. always coreferences an argument of the matrix.
* There are corresponding argument phrases for -3A and -3I.

Phrasal Usage

This applies to syntactical nouns and adjectives. One argument must be nullified. If 3. appears, A1 is nullified; in this case, if -3A or -3I appears, a corresponding argument phrases must appear. Otherwise, either -3A or -3I must appear with that argument nullified. If both appear, the one whose argument is nullified is the one whose gender is required by the situation; the other will have a corresponding argument phrase.

Examples

Read more... )

VOS: Some Syntax

2006-Jul-19, Wednesday 20:29
qiihoskeh: myo: kanji (Default)
Lexical verbs can be used as syntactical adjectives as well as syntactical verbs. Lexical nouns can be used as syntactical verbs as well as syntactical nouns. The terms used below are used syntactically.

The word order within a clause is VOS; when both are manifest as phrases, secondary objects precede primary arguments. The number of manifest phrases depends on the form of the head word.

The order of clause components is:
determiner - quantifier - noun - adjectives - relative clause

Complement clauses are introduced by the proclitic particle CC- (la-). Adverbial clauses are introduced by the proclitic particle Adv- (i-). There are conjunctions (not necessarily proclitic) which work in a similar way.

Relative clauses are introduced by a "such that" particle RC and contain the relative clause actant -Rel (-ro) or Rel- (ro-). Nonrestrictive clauses are formed the same way, but place the particle NR (sel) before RC. NR placed before an adjective makes it nonrestrictive.
qiihoskeh: myo: kanji (Default)
Last Edited: 2006.Aug.20 Sun

The language has three native writing systems, or "levels".

Level A

This system uses one symbol for each basic word, with additional symbols for affixes and clitics. This is a modification of a system which evolved for another language.

Level B

This uses three sets of symbols: onsets, rhymes, and classifiers. Most basic verbs and particles can be described with 75 rhymes and no more than 35 onsets (depending on which consonant + approximant combinations are possible). Basic nouns have an additional CV syllable which I'm calling a classifier for lack of a better term; there are 75 of these. The classifiers are also used for affixes and clitics. The symbols originated from the simplification of Level A symbols.

Onsets:
1 null consonant
13 single consonants
2 approximants (i.e. w and y)
from 13 to 19 sequences of consonant + approximant

Rhymes:
5 vowels * 13 coda consonants
5 long vowels
5 diphthongs

Classifiers:
13 consonants * 5 vowels
2 approximants * 5 vowels

A word root is written Onset + Rhyme (+ Classifier). However, dictionaries are arranged according to rhyme.

Some words, such as the demonstratives are written entirey using classifiers. These go into a special section in dictionaries.

Level C

This is an alphabetic system, using a subset of the Level B symbols, possibly simplified.
13 single consonants
2 approximants (i.e. w and y)
5 vowels

The alphabetic system can be easily transliterated using the letters a, e, i, u, o, r, z, l, m, n, f, s, x, h, p, t, c, k, w, and y. This is slightly different from the romanization used in these pages (documented in Phonology and Romanization).

There may also be a voicing diacritic to distinguish b, d, j, and g if these turn out to be separate phonemes.
qiihoskeh: myo: kanji (Default)
Last Edited: 2006.Jul.16 Sun

Noun Declension

Declension of nouns is very simple: the plural is formed from the singular by adding -x (the tag is -P).

Pronouns

The 1st and 2nd person pronouns are used for focused, topicalized, and emphasized arguments; otherwise the actants are used. Note that they take 3rd person agreement. The 3rd person pronouns may have anaphoric use.
Read more... )
* Nee substitutes for cii immediately after a word ending in -c(i).
* Nee substitutes for luu immediately after a word ending in -l(u).

Dummy Nouns

In contrast to the pronouns, which replace whole phrases, dummy nouns fill the noun part of the phrase and can take noun plurals.
Read more... )
* Ne substitutes for co immediately after a word ending in -c(i).
* Ne substitutes for lo immediately after a word ending in -l(u).

Examples


Read more... )
qiihoskeh: myo: kanji (Default)
The * language is spoken in * by the *. So much for conculture.

Phonology and Romanization
Some Syntax
Actant Morphology see Alternate Explanation
Alternate Explanation
Temporal Morphology
State Changes and Causatives
Focus Fronting
Nouns and Pronouns
Native Writing Systems
Single-Mora Morphemes

Note: A lot of the vocabulary is currently borrowed and will probably be replaced in the long run.
qiihoskeh: myo: kanji (Default)
Last Edited: 2006.Aug.20 Sun

State Changes

The language has three state change prefixes which are applied to I-Verbs: ni-, indicating a change to a state, ho- indicating a change from a state, and kwa-, indicating a change to and then from a state. The resulting stems are P-Verbs.
Read more... )
There are special forms where location is involved. When the prefixes are added to the locative marker saa, the stems nis, hos, and kwas are formed.

Demonstratives

This section is here because most of the demonstratives are related to saa, nis, hos, and kwas. They're constructed using the bases sa-, ni, ho, and kwa- respectively to which personal morphemes are added. The latter indicate the person nearest the entities. NOTE: for actual motion, use nisam etc. instead of nim etc.
Read more... )
The conjugations of these demonstratives are shown in the following tables.
Read more... )
Note that sam and sak are regular I-Verbs. Nim, nik, hom, hok, kwam, and kwak are regular P-Verbs.
Read more... )

Causatives

The causative prefix xo- is added to P-Verbs to add an argument specifying the cause of the action etc. The original O1 becomes O1 and the original S becomes O2. An exception occurs when xo- is applied to an originally trivalent word: the original O2 is kept and the original O1 is lost. Another oddity is that if a 1st or 2nd person marker ends up as O2, any unspecified O1 must be indicated by the suffix -so. Examples:
Read more... )
There's also a causative auxiliary verb xol-.
qiihoskeh: myo: kanji (Default)
Last Edited: 2006.Jul.19 Wed

Temporal Word Classes

Content words fall into three classes: those that are basically imperfective, those that are basically perfective, and those that are tenseless. The first class, called I-Verbs (or stative verbs), include lexical verbs such as "want" and "know" and lexical adjectives. The second class, called P-Verbs (or active verbs), include most lexical verbs. The third class contains the lexical nouns. The imperfectives of P-Verbs are formed using a prefix Ipf- (pa-).

Imperative Mood

The imperative mood is marked using a suffix -Imp (-e). Usually, there's no person marking; 2nd person indefinite number is implied. See Actant Morphology for imperative mood person marking. The time of the imperative is relatively future.

Tense Marking

Past, present, and future times are distinguished. In addition, for the past and future, definite time is distinguished from indefinite time. Definite time means that the action or state is applicable at some time known to the speaker which the addressee is expected to know. Indefinite time means that the action or state is applicable at any time. The actual time indicated depends on tense suffixes (-o, -a, -t(u), and -ta), the aspect and mood, and on context. Ignoring the last, the possible combinations of tense, aspect, and mood are shown in the following table:
Read more... )
* The perfective indefinite past can also be relative present outside of a main clause and even relative future, if an auxiliary verb so dictates. Examples:
Read more... )

Additional Aspects

The retrospective aspect is marked using the prefix Prf- (ce-) and the prospective aspect using the prefix Pro- (fu-). For P-Verbs, these replace the imperfective prefix. For I-Verbs, they're added to the imperfective definite forms.

The habitual aspect is marked using the prefix Habt- (fa-). The iterative aspect is marked using the prefix Iter- (ra-). These are most often applied to P-Verbs, making them I-Verbs.
qiihoskeh: myo: kanji (Default)

Single-Mora Morphemes

This section isn't essential to the grammar, but helps me keep track of the various affixes, clitics, and pronominal roots.
Read more... )
qiihoskeh: myo: kanji (Default)
Last Edited: 2006.Jul.17 Mon

Phonology and Romanization

The pronunciation is highly approximate.
Read more... )
Long vowels are mostly indicated either by doubling the vowel letter or with a circumflex. Vowels following w or y in open syllables are automatically long.

Diphthongs include ai, ao, oi, eo, and ei.

Moric units are either CV, V, or C. The last alternates with Cu (Ci where C is c, j, or x).
The voiced stops and affricate are possibly not phonemic; they occur as allophones to the corresponding voiceless ones between two voiced sounds (possibly limiting that to the vowels and r).

The voiceless stops and affricate are aspirated in coda position (unless geminate).

Stress is on the first syllable of the root and isn't indicated by the orthography. Stressed short vowels in open syllables are lengthened in the ultima and the penult. This may or may not be indicated in writing.

Some Historical Development

The following table shows the result of 2-vowel combinations. The entries use the romanization.
Read more... )
qiihoskeh: myo: kanji (Default)
Last Edited: 2006.Jul.14 Fri

Focus Fronting

A focused argument moves to the start of the clause. Focused arguments include query (WH-question) words and contrasting phrases. The rest of the clause is asserted. There are a couple of interesting things here:
(1) the verb is preceded by the same word used as a definite article,
(2) the verb acts like a noun or adject with regard to actant morphology.

Examples: Read more... )
qiihoskeh: myo: kanji (Default)
last edited: 2006.Jul.15 Sat

Word Classification

Lexical nouns can function as syntactical verbs as well as syntactical nouns and lexical verbs and adjectives can function both as syntactical verbs and as syntactical adjectives. The word's valence is probably more important.

* The monovalent words include intransitive lexical verbs, lexical adjectives, and most lexical nouns.
* The divalent words include transitive lexical verbs and lexical nouns denoting relationships, such as kinship terms and words for body parts.
* The trivalent words are the ditransitive lexical verbs.

Actant Affixes

The following table shows the actants. Subjects are marked using prefixes and objects using suffixes. There are two subject paradigms, depending on whether the word has imperative mood or not. Entries such as m(u)- indicate that the vowel is dropped under certain phonological conditions. Note the multiple 3rd person actants. Their exact use depends on how the word functions in the sentence.
Read more... )
There may also be distinct subject paradigms for Impersonal and Modal words.

Monovalent Words

Monovalent words have a single argument, A1, specifying the word's subject. The actants for A1 are the prefixes. When A1 takes 3., a subject phrase appears and if the word functions as a main verb, A1 acts as a head (and otherwise as a dependent). If the word functions as a complement or adjunct verb, the prefix 3H- can be used to make A1 act as a head. If the word is a syntactical noun or adjective, no prefix is possible; A1 must take 3..

Examples: Read more... )

Divalent Words

Divalent words have an additional argument, A2, specifying either the words's object or its possessor. The actants for A1 are the suffixes.

If the word functions as a main verb, this scheme is used:
* A1 and A2 are always heads
* 3H- and -3D are not used

If the word functions as a complement or adjunct verb, this scheme is used:
* 3. makes A1 a dependent; otherwise A1 is a head
* -3D makes A2 a dependent; otherwise A2 is a head

If the word functions as a syntactical noun or adjective, this scheme is used:
* 3. makes A1 a dependent; otherwise A1 is a head
* -3D makes A2 a dependent, but is used only with 3.
* -3A and -3I make A2 act like a dependent only with 3H-

Examples: Read more... )

Trivalent Words

Trivalent words have a third argument, A3, specifying the direct object (A2 now specifies the indirect object). A3 which is always (or at least normally) inanimate and takes either -3I, -3D, or .U. For these words, A2 can't take -3I.

If the word functions as a main verb, this scheme is used:
* A1, A2, and A3 are always heads
* 3H- and -3D are not used

If the word functions as a complement or adjunct verb, this scheme is used:
* 3. makes A1 a dependent; otherwise A1 is a head
* -3D makes A2 or A3 a dependent (depending on position); otherwise these are heads

If the word functions as a syntactical noun or adjective, this scheme is used:
* 3. makes A1 a dependent; otherwise A1 is a head
* -3D makes A2 or A3 a dependent (depending on position), but is used only with 3.
* -3A or -3I (depending on the gender required by context) makes A2 act like a dependent only with 3H-

Examples: Read more... )

Argument Structure Classes

This will show which roles are matched with which arguments for each word class.
Read more... )
qiihoskeh: myo: kanji (Default)
I keep starting new conlang projects. This one is VOS with syntax like Atle (project Delta).

Phonology and Orthography

The pronunciation is highly approximate.
Read more... )
Moric units are either CV, V, or C. The last alternate with Cu. Some initial clusters are preceded by an epenthetic u.

Root Form Types

Single mora roots are (C)V; there are some Cu root forms which may alternate with C. Double mora roots can be (C)VCV, (C)VC, (C)VV, or CCV. The last can take vowelless suffixes and the rest can take vowelless prefixes. Examples: mu-spa-k and um-pas-ku.

Lexical nouns may be formed by appending a single mora classifier to a double mora verbal root. The classifier specifies number as well as gender. For some lexical nouns, the roots might not have a separate meaning. The classifiers can be used by themselves as generic lexical nouns.

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