Last Edited: 2006.Nov.20 Mon
Strictly speaking, what the language has probably aren't participles, but special finite forms.
The "active participle" uses a null subject prefix, e.g.
to-li-biz-d-e takpañ golp-e.
TO-3AS-here-Loc-Ind Act.tree Act.big-Ind
"Here's the big tree."
where golpe (and for that matter, takpañ) is an active participle.
The "passive participle" is formed using u-
as the object prefix, e.g.
to-li-biz-d-e takpañ bi-u-kamb-e.
TO-3AS-here-Loc-Ind Act.tree 1XS-Pas-see-Ind
"Here's the tree I saw."
where biukambe is a passive participle. Note that u-
can be either a direct object or an indirect object prefix if the verb is trivalent. Examples:
ki-bi-u-tân-e "what you gave me"
ki-u-ji-tân-e "to whom you gave it".
These are made into adverbs by putting a-
before any actant prefixes, e.g. abiukambe.
There are different kinds of relative clauses:
- those formed with the adverbs uz "where" or un "when"
- those where the argument of an argument is relativized
These are formed as follows:
- The adverbs occur first in the clause. These relative clauses are adverbial; the adjectival counterparts are formed using tuz and tun (the forms of these words may change). Example:
si-golp-e takpañ tuz bi-li-kamb-e cipcip.
3IS-big-Ind Act.tree where 1XS-3AS-see-Ind Act.bird
"The tree where I saw the bird is large."
cipcip, bi-ji-kamb-e uz ki-ji-hask-e.
Act.bird, 1XS-3TS-see-Ind where 2XS-3TS-hear-Ind
"I saw the bird where you heard it."
- The clause is formed like a main clause except that it's introduced with the conjunction net and uses the prefix te- in place of the pronominal prefix. Example:
si-golp-e takpañ net bi-li-kamb-e cipcip te-yûm-e.
3IS-big-Ind Act.tree NET 1XS-3AS-see-Ind Act.bird Act.TE-on_top_of-Ind
"The tree I saw the bird on top of is large."